Which agents cause reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS)? A systematic review

M. S. Shakeri, Finlay Dick, J. G. Ayres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)


Aim To identify those agents reported as being associated with reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS).
Methods A systematic review was undertaken. Abstracts were screened and those selected reviewed against pre-determined diagnostic criteria for RADS.
Results Significant information gaps were identified for all measures of interest. In some articles, even the causative agent was not reported. The most commonly reported agents were chlorine (nine subjects), toluene di-isocyanate (TDI) (n = 6) and oxides of nitrogen (n = 5). Most exposures occurred in the workplace (n = 51) and affected men (60%). Dyspnoea (71%) and cough (65%) were the commonest symptoms. Median symptom duration was 13 months (interquartile range 6.5-43.5) for RADS.
Conclusions Although the most commonly reported agent associated with RADS was chlorine, the main finding of a general lack of adequate information on exposure, investigation and outcome suggests that to better explore RADS a more structured approach to gathering information is required. A minimum data set for reporting RADS cases is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)205-211
Number of pages7
JournalOccupational Medicine
Issue number3
Early online date27 Feb 2008
Publication statusPublished - May 2008


  • asthma
  • irritant-induced asthma
  • reactive airways dysfunction
  • workplace irritant exposures
  • occupational asthma
  • persistent asthma
  • respiratory symptoms
  • hydrochloric-acid
  • surveillance
  • inhalation
  • mixture
  • products
  • chlorine


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