Who made mauveine first: Runge, Fritsche, Beissenhirtz or Perkin?

M. John Plater, Andrea Raab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


The oxidation of aniline or a mixture of aniline with o-toluidine and p-toluidine following Runge’s original method as carefully as possible, using chloride of lime [Ca(OCl)2], produces a coloured solution from which small amounts of mauveine were purified, isolated and analysed by LC-MS. The oxidation of aniline by the method of Fritsche and Beissenhirtz, using potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid, similar to WH Perkin’s patented method, also gave small quantities of mauveine. The composition of the anilines are suggested depending upon their sources, and Kekulé’s comments on these early contributions are summarised.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)758-762
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Chemical Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016


  • amines
  • aniline
  • mauveine
  • history of science
  • oxidation


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