A Survey on Imitation Learning Techniques for End-to-End Autonomous Vehicles

Luc Le Mero, Dewei Yi, Mehrdad Dianati, Alexandros Mouzakitis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


The state-of-the-art decision and planning approaches for autonomous vehicles have moved away from manually designed systems, instead focusing on the utilisation of largescale datasets of expert demonstration via Imitation Learning
(IL). In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of IL approaches, primarily for the paradigm of end-to-end based systems in autonomous vehicles. We classify the literature into three distinct categories: 1) Behavioural Cloning (BC), 2) Direct Policy Learning (DPL) and 3) Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL). For each of these categories, the current state-of-theart literature is comprehensively reviewed and summarised, with future directions of research identified to facilitate the development of imitation learning based systems for end-to-end autonomous vehicles. Due to the data-intensive nature of deep
learning techniques, currently available datasets and simulators for end-to-end autonomous driving are also reviewed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14128-14147
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number9
Early online date1 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Agency:
10.13039/100016335-Jaguar Land Rover
10.13039/501100000266-U.K. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (Grant Number: EP/N01300X/1)
jointly funded Towards Autonomy: Smart and Connected Control (TASCC) Program


  • Intelligent vehicles
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • machine learning
  • autonomous systems
  • Learning
  • neural networks


Dive into the research topics of 'A Survey on Imitation Learning Techniques for End-to-End Autonomous Vehicles'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this