Enacting inclusion: a framework for interrogating inclusive practice

Lani Florian, Jennifer Spratt

Research output: Contribution to journalSpecial issuepeer-review

162 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports on the development and use of an analytical framework for interrogating the practice of newly qualified mainstream teachers recently graduated from a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) that was informed by a concept of inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that supports teachers to respond to individual differences between learners but avoids the marginalisation that can occur when some students are treated differently. The analytical framework was based on the principles of inclusive pedagogy, (Florian &Black-Hawkins, 2011) which were linked to the core themes of Aberdeen University’s PGDE course. Its purpose was to provide a robust and coherent framework for documenting inclusive pedagogy in action. This paper describes how the framework was developed and used with new teachers in order to further understanding of how reforms of initial teacher education can impact inclusive teaching and learning.

The framework was initially designed in the context of a teacher education project but has wider applicability as a research tool for exploring inclusive pedagogy in action. This is particularly relevant to the study of inclusive education in the practical setting of the classroom where there is little guidance to support systematic research on how inclusive education is enacted.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-135
Number of pages16
JournalEuropean Journal of Special Needs Education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2013


  • inclusion
  • inclusive education
  • inclusive pedagogy
  • teacher education
  • teacher professional development


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