Exploring the interplay between a loving pedagogy, creativity, and work engagement among EFL/ESL teachers: A multinational study

Ali Derakhshan* (Corresponding Author), Vincent Greenier, Jalil Fathi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the validity of three psychometric scales—the Disposition towards Loving Pedagogy (DTLP), Teaching for Creativity Scale (TCS), and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)—to uncover the relationship between these constructs with a multinational cohort of language teachers. The results obtained from Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed the psychometric properties of the three scales. The hypothesized model for the relationship between participants’ DTLP, TCS, and their UWES revealed that although both predictor variables significantly predicted UWES, TCS was a stronger predictor for UWES. The model was also tested for measurement invariance across ethnicity and gender. By drawing on the findings obtained in this study, future language researchers are aided to employ the three revalidated scales in their research undertakings on a cross- or multi-cultural scale, and increase expansion of culture-centered research on various teacher personality variables with the aim of precipitating language teachers’ continuing professional development.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages20
JournalCurrent Psychology
Early online date5 Jul 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Acknowledgements This work was supported by Golestan University. This university has no role in the design and implementation of this study. The authors wish to thank Golestan University for its support. They are also grateful to the insightful comments suggested by the editor and the anonymous reviewers.
Funding This study is supported by Golestan University under Grant number 1470

Data Availability Statement

The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


  • Teaching for creativity
  • Loving pedagogy
  • Work engagement
  • Teacher well-being
  • Multi-cultural investigation
  • English as a second/foreign language


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