Gender Analysis for Sustainable Livelihoods and Participatory Governance in Rwanda

Pamela Abbott, Lillian Mutesi, Emma Norris

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned Report


This report analyses the gender differences in Rwanda and explores why these differences exist and what they mean for sustainable livelihoods and participatory governance, to inform the Oxfam Rwanda Country Programme. The report includes an analysis of the legal and policy framework for gender equality and the empowerment of women, an analysis of secondary data, and insights from qualitative research with key informants and women and men in Rwanda. It draws on data from a number of sources, including the main surveys carried out under the auspices of the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, survey and qualitative research carried out by IPAR-Rwanda over the last four years and other relevant research and qualitative research carried out specifically for this project.(Appendix 2 provided selected gender disaggregated indicators and Appendix 3 gives indicators for women by household wealth.) The analysis used the USAID six domains of gender as its framework and examined each domain in turn 1. It concludes by highlighting the key barriers and constraints for women claiming and exercising their rights and makes recommendations and draws out implications for Oxfam. Gender equality and women’s empowerment are key goals in their own right and are central to all other development goals. Smart development means promoting gender equality and empowering women. Gender outcomes are not just about employment rates, education outcomes, financial inclusion or representation in governance institutions; they are about equitable decision-making power, shared control over assets and income, personal safety, mobility, equitable interpersonal relations and having voice and agency. They are about transforming the relationship between men and women so that women as well as men are able to claim and exercise their human rights.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationRwanda
Number of pages134
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2015

Bibliographical note

This project could not have been undertaken without the willing cooperation of the men and women that agreed to participate in the focus group discussions and the national- and local-level key
informants who gave up their time to talk to us. We thank them for so willingly agreeing to talk to us. We would also like to thank our colleagues at IPAR, who supported us in carrying out this project,
Paul Kayira and Alfred Bizoza, and the research assistants who took notes and transcribed the FGDs. Staff at Oxfam Rwanda, especially Hannah Stoddart, provided support and advice for which we are
extremely grateful and the feedback from Oxfam Rwanda enabled us to improve the draft report. We alone, however, remain responsible for the content of the report and it should not be taken as necessarily representing the views of Oxfam Rwanda or the Board of Directors of the Institute of Policy Analysis and Research-Rwanda. The EICV3 and RDHS data sets were used with the permission if the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda and the FinScope 2012 with that of Access to Finance Rwanda. IPAR-Rwanda has the right to use the data sets from the Women’s Empowerment Survey and the Senate Survey, which it was responsible for carrying out.


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