Increased knowledge of the immune response of the intestine, a physiologically critical organ involved in absorption, secretion and homeostasis in a non-sterile environment, is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the induction of long-lasting immunity and, subsequently, the development of efficacious gastrointestinal immunization approaches. To this end, analysis of isolated gut cells will give an insight into the cell types present and their immune capability. Hence, in this study we first optimised a method for salmonid gut leucocyte isolation and characterised the cells on the basis of their expression of a range of selected cell markers associated with T & B cells and dendritic cells. The GALT leucocytes were then stimulated with a variety of PAMPs, recombinant cytokines and PHA, as a means to help characterise the diversity of the immune repertoire present in such cells. The stimulants tested were designed to examine the nature of the antibacterial, antiviral and T cell type responses in the cells (at the transcript level) using a panel of genes relevant to innate and adaptive immunity. The results showed distinct responses to the stimulants, with a clear delineation seen between the stimulant used (eg viral or bacterial PAMP) and the pathway elicited. The changes in the expression patterns of the immune genes in these cells indicates that the salmonid intestine contains a good repertoire of competent immune cells able to respond to different pathogen types. Such information may aid the development of efficient priming by oral vaccination in salmonids.
Bibliographical noteAhmed Attaya’s PhD project was funded by the Newton Fund, the British Council, and the National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF), Hurghada, Egypt. This research was also supported financially by a grant (BB/M013022/1) from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). TEM was performed in the Microscopy and Histology Core Facility at the University of Aberdeen. Thanks to Yehfang Hu (SFIRC) for help with the flow cytometry analysis.
- GALT leucocytes
- Recombinant cytokines
- Gene expression