2. One promising approach to synthesise plant and soil biodiversity and their interactions into models is to consider their diversity from a functional trait perspective. Plant traits, which include heritable chemical, physical, morphological and phenological characteristics, are increasingly being used to predict ecosystem processes at a range of scales, and to interpret biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships. There is also emerging evidence that the traits of soil microbial and faunal communities can be correlated with ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient cycling and greenhouse gas production.
3. Here, we draw on recent advances in measuring and using traits of different biota to predict ecosystem processes, and provide a new perspective as to how biotic traits can be integrated into biogeochemical models. We first describe an explicit trait-based model framework that operates at small scales and uses direct measurements of ecosystem properties; second, an integrated approach that operates at medium scales and includes interactions between biogeochemical cycling and soil food webs; and third, an implicit trait-based model framework that associates soil microbial and faunal functional groups with plant functional groups, and operates at the Earth-system level. In each of these models we identify opportunities for inclusion of traits from all three groups to reduce model uncertainty and improve understanding of biogeochemical cycles.
4. These model frameworks will generate improved predictive capacity of how changes in biodiversity regulate biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. Further, they will assist in developing a new generation of process-based models that include plant, microbial and faunal traits and facilitate dialogue between empirical researchers and modellers.
Bibliographical noteELF is supported by the NERC Soil Security Programme (NE/P013708/1); JRD and BGJ by the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) (Grants BB/I009000/2 and BB/I009183/1). DJ receives partial support from the N8 AgriFood programme. This work was supported by a BBSRC International Partnering award (BB/L026759/1) to EB, DJ, RB and PS.
- above‐belowground interactions
- carbon and nitrogen cycling
- climate change
- community weighted means
- effect and response traits
- intra- and interspecific variation
- above-belowground interactions